How it works

Methods make a difference.

The latest research in learning science tells us that common, conventional learning methods are creating problems. We’ve spent the last decade applying research in real-world settings to bring you a learning system that just works.

The conventional approach to learning skills

This approach creates a complicated and fragile learning system with many band-aid solutions.

  • Lots of "tips and tricks"
  • Often repetitive and tedious techniques
  • Time-consuming
  • The objective is to fight your memory

Learners with high "natural intelligence" (i.e. deep processing habits) who can succeed even without an efficient system

Our approach to learning skills

This approach creates an intuitive system of learning that is more effective and adaptable, by design.

  • More intuitive and engaging
  • Better retention of new information
  • Less repetition and less time-consuming
  • The objective is to work with our memory

Learners that are already high-achieving can do just as well (or better) with less time, effort, and stress.

Learners who are struggling can start achieving better results and take control of their learning.

Adesope, O. O., Trevisan, D. A., & Sundararajan, N. (2017). Rethinking the use of tests: A meta-analysis of practice testing. Review of Educational Research, 87(3), 659-701.

Afflerbach, P., Cho, B.-Y., & Kim, J.-Y. (2015). Conceptualizing and assessing higher-order thinking in reading. Theory Into Practice, 54(3), 203-212.

Agarwal, P. K., Finley, J. R., Rose, N. S., & Roediger, H. L., 3rd. (2017). Benefits from retrieval practice are greater for students with lower working memory capacity. Memory, 25(6), 764-771.

Aiken, E. G., Thomas, G. S., & Shennum, W. A. (1975). Memory for a lecture: effects of notes, lecture rate, and informational density. Journal of educational psychology, 67(3), 439.

Aldekhyl, S., Cavalcanti, R. B., & Naismith, L. M. (2018). Cognitive load predicts point-of-care ultrasound simulator performance. Perspectives on medical education, 7(1), 23-32.

Areepattamannil, S., Cairns, D., & Dickson, M. (2020). Teacher-Directed Versus Inquiry-Based Science Instruction: Investigating Links to Adolescent Students’ Science Dispositions Across 66 Countries. Journal of Science Teacher Education, 31(6), 675-704.

Atkinson, R. C., & Shiffrin, R. M. (1968). Human memory: A proposed system and its control processes. In Psychology of learning and motivation (Vol. 2, pp. 89-195). Elsevier.

Austin, K., Orcutt, S., & Rosso, J. (2001). How people learn: Introduction to learning theories. The learning classroom: Theory into practice–a telecourse for teacher education and professional development.

Australian Government Department of Health. (2015). The mental health of children and adolescents: Report on the second Australian Child and Adolescent Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing.

Ayres, P. (2006). Impact of reducing intrinsic cognitive load on learning in a mathematical domain. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 20(3), 287-298.

Baars, M., & Wijnia, L. (2018). The relation between task-specific motivational profiles and training of self-regulated learning skills. Learning and Individual Differences, 64, 125-137.

Baars, M., Wijnia, L., de Bruin, A., & Paas, F. (2020). The relation between students’ effort and monitoring judgments during learning: a meta-analysis. Educational Psychology Review, 32(4), 979-1002.

Bahrick, H. P., Bahrick, L. E., Bahrick, A. S., & Bahrick, P. E. (1993). Maintenance of foreign language vocabulary and the spacing effect. Psychological science, 4(5), 316-321.

Bahrick, H. P., & Hall, L. K. (2005). The importance of retrieval failures to long-term retention: A metacognitive explanation of the spacing effect. Journal of Memory and Language, 52(4), 566-577.

Barrow, L. H. (2006). A brief history of inquiry: From Dewey to standards. Journal of Science Teacher Education, 17(3), 265-278.

Bartlett, F. C., & Bartlett, F. C. (1995). Remembering: A study in experimental and social psychology. Cambridge University Press.

Berliner, D. C. (1971). Aptitude-Treatment Interactions in Two Studies of Learning from Lecture Instruction.

Bielaczyc, K., Pirolli, P. L., & Brown, A. L. (1995). Training in self-explanation and self-regulation strategies: Investigating the effects of knowledge acquisition activities on problem solving. Cognition and instruction, 13(2), 221-252.

Biggs, J. (1996). Enhancing teaching through constructive alignment. Higher education, 32(3), 347-364.

Birnbaum, M. S., Kornell, N., Bjork, E. L., & Bjork, R. A. (2013). Why interleaving enhances inductive learning: The roles of discrimination and retrieval. Memory & cognition, 41(3), 392-402.

Bjork, R. A., Dunlosky, J., & Kornell, N. (2013). Self-regulated learning: Beliefs, techniques, and illusions. Annual review of psychology, 64, 417-444.

Blissett, S., Sibbald, M., Kok, E., & van Merrienboer, J. (2018). Optimizing self-regulation of performance: is mental effort a cue? Advances in Health Sciences Education, 23(5), 891-898.

Boekaerts, M., & Corno, L. (2005). Self-regulation in the classroom: A perspective on assessment and intervention. Applied Psychology, 54(2), 199-231.

Bosch, E., Seifried, E., & Spinath, B. (2021). What successful students do: Evidence-based learning activities matter for students’ performance in higher education beyond prior knowledge, motivation, and prior achievement. Learning and Individual Differences, 91, 102056.

Bound, J., Hershbein, B., & Long, B. T. (2009). Playing the admissions game: Student reactions to increasing college competition. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 23(4), 119-146.

Bretzing, B. H., & Kulhavy, R. W. (1979). Notetaking and depth of processing. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 4(2), 145-153.

Bruel-Jungerman, E., Davis, S., & Laroche, S. (2007). Brain plasticity mechanisms and memory: a party of four. The Neuroscientist, 13(5), 492-505.

Bruner, J. S. (1961). The act of discovery. Harvard educational review.

Bui, D. C., & McDaniel, M. A. (2015). Enhancing learning during lecture note-taking using outlines and illustrative diagrams. Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition, 4(2), 129-135.

Bui, D. C., Myerson, J., & Hale, S. (2013). Note-taking with computers: Exploring alternative strategies for improved recall. Journal of educational psychology, 105(2), 299.

Butler, A. C., Karpicke, J. D., & Roediger, H. L., 3rd. (2007). The effect of type and timing of feedback on learning from multiple-choice tests. J Exp Psychol Appl, 13(4), 273-281.

Callender, A. A., & McDaniel, M. A. (2009). The limited benefits of rereading educational texts. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 34(1), 30-41.

Carey, B. (2015). How we learn: The surprising truth about when, where, and why it happens. Random House Trade Paperbacks.

Carneiro, P., Lapa, A., & Finn, B. (2021). Memory updating after retrieval: when new information is false or correct. Memory, 1-20.

Carpenter, S. K. (2017). 2.26 – Spacing Effects on Learning and Memory☆. In J. H. Byrne (Ed.), Learning and memory: a comprehensive reference (second edition) (pp. 465-485). Academic Press.

Carpenter, S. K., Endres, T., & Hui, L. (2020). Students’ use of retrieval in self-regulated learning: Implications for monitoring and regulating effortful learning experiences. Educational Psychology Review, 32(4), 1029-1054.

Casteleyn, J., Mottart, A., & Valcke, M. (2013). The impact of graphic organisers on learning from presentations. Technology, Pedagogy and Education, 22(3), 283-301.

Cepeda, N. J., Coburn, N., Rohrer, D., Wixted, J. T., Mozer, M. C., & Pashler, H. (2009). Optimizing Distributed Practice. Experimental Psychology, 56(4), 236-246.

Chan, J. C. K., Manley, K. D., & Ahn, D. (2020). Does retrieval potentiate new learning when retrieval stops but new learning continues? Journal of Memory and Language, 115, 104150.

Chan, J. C. K., Meissner, C. A., & Davis, S. D. (2018). Retrieval potentiates new learning: A theoretical and meta-analytic review. Psychological Bulletin, 144(11), 1111-1146.

Chechile, R. A., & Ehrensbeck, K. (1983). Long-term storage losses: A dilemma for multistore models. The Journal of general psychology, 109(1), 15-30.

Chen, O., Castro-Alonso, J. C., Paas, F., & Sweller, J. (2018a). Extending cognitive load theory to incorporate working memory resource depletion: evidence from the spacing effect. Educational Psychology Review, 30(2), 483-501.

Chen, O., Castro-Alonso, J. C., Paas, F., & Sweller, J. (2018b). Undesirable difficulty effects in the learning of high-element interactivity materials [Review]. Frontiers in Psychology, 9.

Chen, O., Kalyuga, S., & Sweller, J. (2015). The worked example effect, the generation effect, and element interactivity. Journal of educational psychology, 107(3), 689.

Chiesi, H. L., Spilich, G. J., & Voss, J. F. (1979). Acquisition of domain-related information in relation to high and low domain knowledge. Journal of verbal learning and verbal behavior, 18(3), 257-273.

Conklin, J. (2005). A taxonomy for learning, teaching, and assessing: A revision of Bloom’s taxonomy of educational objectives complete edition. In: JSTOR.

Constantinou, C. P., Tsivitanidou, O. E., & Rybska, E. (2018). What Is Inquiry-Based Science Teaching and Learning? In O. E. Tsivitanidou, P. Gray, E. Rybska, L. Louca, & C. P. Constantinou (Eds.), Professional Development for Inquiry-Based Science Teaching and Learning (pp. 1-23). Springer International Publishing.

Craig, K., Hale, D., Grainger, C., & Stewart, M. E. (2020). Evaluating metacognitive self-reports: Systematic reviews of the value of self-report in metacognitive research. Metacognition and Learning, 15(2), 155-213.

de Bruin, A. B., Roelle, J., Carpenter, S. K., & Baars, M. (2020). Synthesizing cognitive load and self-regulation theory: A theoretical framework and research agenda. Educational Psychology Review, 32(4), 903-915.

Dewey, J. (1933). A restatement of the relation of reflective thinking to the educative process. DC Heath.

Di Vesta, F. J., & Gray, G. S. (1972). Listening and note taking. Journal of educational psychology, 63(1), 8.

Didau, D. (2015). What if everything you knew about education was wrong? Crown House Publishing.

Dominguez, A., & Novak, H. (2019). National Survey of Student Engagement (NSSE) 2019 Results (Institutional Research, Planning and Effectiveness, Issue.

Dorier, J., & Maab, K. (2012). The PRIMAS Project: Promoting inquiry-based learning (IBL) in mathematics and science education across Europe PRIMAS context analysis for the implementation of IBL: International Synthesis Report PRIMAS–Promoting Inquiry-Based Learning in Mathemati (Vol. 1). Lokaliseret på: www. primasproject. eu/servlet/supportBinaryFiles.

Dunning, D. (2011). The Dunning–Kruger effect: On being ignorant of one’s own ignorance. In Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 44, pp. 247-296). Elsevier.

Ebbinghaus, H. (1885). Über das gedächtnis: untersuchungen zur experimentellen psychologie. Duncker & Humblot.

Edelson, D. C., Gordin, D. N., & Pea, R. D. (1999). Addressing the challenges of inquiry-based learning through technology and curriculum design. Journal of the Learning Sciences, 8(3-4), 391-450.

Egan, D. E., & Schwartz, B. J. (1979). Chunking in recall of symbolic drawings. Memory & cognition, 7(2), 149-158.

Einstein, G. O., Morris, J., & Smith, S. (1985). Note-taking, individual differences, and memory for lecture information. Journal of educational psychology, 77(5), 522.

Entwistle, N., & Tait, H. (1995). Approaches to studying and perceptions of the learning environment across disciplines. New directions for teaching and learning, 1995(64), 93-103.

Ericsson, K. A., & Charness, N. (1994). Expert performance: Its structure and acquisition. American psychologist, 49(8), 725.

Erskine, H. E., Baxter, A. J., Patton, G., Moffitt, T. E., Patel, V., Whiteford, H. A., & Scott, J. G. (2017). The global coverage of prevalence data for mental disorders in children and adolescents. Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences, 26(4), 395-402.

Fernández-Alonso, R., Álvarez-Díaz, M., Suárez-Álvarez, J., & Muñiz, J. (2017). Students’ Achievement and Homework Assignment Strategies [Original Research]. Frontiers in Psychology, 8(286).

Fong, C. J., Krou, M. R., Johnston-Ashton, K., Hoff, M. A., Lin, S., & Gonzales, C. (2021). LASSI’s great adventure: A meta-analysis of the Learning and Study Strategies Inventory and academic outcomes. Educational Research Review, 34, 100407.

Geary, D. C. (2008). An evolutionarily informed education science. Educational Psychologist, 43(4), 179-195.

Geary, D. C., & Geary, D. C. (2007). Educating the evolved mind. Educating the evolved mind, 1-99.

Gobet, F., & Clarkson, G. (2004). Chunks in expert memory: Evidence for the magical number four … or is it two? Memory, 12(6), 732-747.

Gobet, F., Lane, P. C. R., Croker, S., Cheng, P. C. H., Jones, G., Oliver, I., & Pine, J. M. (2001). Chunking mechanisms in human learning. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 5(6), 236-243.

Greving, S., & Richter, T. (2018). Examining the Testing Effect in University Teaching: Retrievability and Question Format Matter [Original Research]. Frontiers in Psychology, 9(2412).

Groep, L. (2021). The relationship between mental effort and judgement of learning on students’ perceived study effectiveness and their decisions on the use of future study strategies

Hadwin, A. F., Nesbit, J. C., Jamieson-Noel, D., Code, J., & Winne, P. H. (2007). Examining trace data to explore self-regulated learning. Metacognition and Learning, 2(2), 107-124.

Hadwin, A. F., Sukhawathanakul, P., Rostampour, R., & Bahena-Olivares, L. M. (2022). Do self-regulated learning practices and intervention mitigate the impact of academic challenges and COVID-19 distress on academic performance during online learning? [Original Research]. Frontiers in Psychology, 13.

Hall, T. (2002). Differentiated instruction.

Händel, M., Harder, B., & Dresel, M. (2020). Enhanced monitoring accuracy and test performance: Incremental effects of judgment training over and above repeated testing. Learning and instruction, 65, 101245.

Hays, M. J., Kornell, N., & Bjork, R. A. (2010). The costs and benefits of providing feedback during learning. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 17(6), 797-801.

Hilbert, T. S., & Renkl, A. (2009). Learning how to use a computer-based concept-mapping tool: Self-explaining examples helps. Computers in Human Behavior, 25(2), 267-274.

Izawa, C. (1999). On human memory: Evolution, progress, and reflections on the 30th anniversary of the Atkinson-Shiffrin model. Psychology Press.

Jansen, R. S., Lakens, D., & Ijsselsteijn, W. A. (2017). An integrative review of the cognitive costs and benefits of note-taking. Educational Research Review, 22, 223-233.

Jeffries, R., Turner, A. A., Polson, P. G., & Atwood, M. E. (1981). The processes involved in designing software. Cognitive skills and their acquisition, 255, 283.

Johnson, D. W. (1991). Cooperative Learning: Increasing College Faculty Instructional Productivity. ASHE-ERIC Higher Education Report No. 4, 1991. ERIC.

Kahneman, D. (2011). Thinking, fast and slow. Macmillan.

Kalberg, J. R., Lane, K. L., Driscoll, S., & Wehby, J. (2011). Systematic Screening for Emotional and Behavioral Disorders at the High School Level: A Formidable and Necessary Task. Remedial and Special Education, 32(6), 506-520.

Kalyuga, S., Chandler, P., Tuovinen, J., & Sweller, J. (2001). When problem solving is superior to studying worked examples. Journal of educational psychology, 93(3), 579.

Karpicke, J. D., Butler, A. C., & Roediger Iii, H. L. (2009). Metacognitive strategies in student learning: Do students practise retrieval when they study on their own? Memory, 17(4), 471-479.

Karpicke, J. D., & Roediger, H. L. (2008). The Critical Importance of Retrieval for Learning. Science, 319(5865), 966-968.

Katayama, A. D., & Robinson, D. H. (2000). Getting students “partially” involved in note-taking using graphic organizers. The Journal of Experimental Education, 68(2), 119-133.

Kauffman, D. F., Zhao, R., & Yang, Y.-S. (2011). Effects of online note taking formats and self-monitoring prompts on learning from online text: Using technology to enhance self-regulated learning. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 36(4), 313-322.

Khalaf, B. K. (2018). Traditional and Inquiry-Based Learning Pedagogy: A Systematic Critical Review. International Journal of Instruction, 11(4), 545-564.

Kiewra, K. A. (1989). A review of note-taking: The encoding-storage paradigm and beyond. Educational Psychology Review, 1(2), 147-172.

Kiewra, K. A., & Benton, S. L. (1988). The relationship between information-processing ability and notetaking. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 13(1), 33-44.

Kiewra, K. A., Benton, S. L., & Lewis, L. B. (1987). Qualitative aspects of notetaking and their relationship with information-processing ability and academic achievement. Journal of Instructional Psychology, 14(3), 110.

King, A. (1992). Comparison of Self-Questioning, Summarizing, and Notetaking-Review as Strategies for Learning from Lectures. American educational research journal, 29(2), 303-323.

Kiraly, D. (2005). Project-based learning: A case for situated translation. Meta: journal des traducteurs/Meta: Translators’ Journal, 50(4), 1098-1111.

Kirk-Johnson, A., Galla, B. M., & Fraundorf, S. H. (2019). Perceiving effort as poor learning: The misinterpreted-effort hypothesis of how experienced effort and perceived learning relate to study strategy choice. Cognitive Psychology, 115, 101237.

Kliegl, O., & Bäuml, K.-H. T. (2021). When retrieval practice promotes new learning – The critical role of study material. Journal of Memory and Language, 120, 104253.

Kolb, D. A. (2014). Experiential learning: Experience as the source of learning and development. FT press.

Koriat, A. (1997). Monitoring one’s own knowledge during study: A cue-utilization approach to judgments of learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 126(4), 349.

Koriat, A., & Bjork, R. A. (2005). Illusions of competence in monitoring one’s knowledge during study. J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn, 31(2), 187-194.

Kornell, N., Castel, A. D., Eich, T. S., & Bjork, R. A. (2010). Spacing as the friend of both memory and induction in young and older adults. Psychology and aging, 25(2), 498.

Krajcik, J., Blumenfeld, P. C., Marx, R. W., Bass, K. M., Fredricks, J., & Soloway, E. (1998). Inquiry in project-based science classrooms: Initial attempts by middle school students. Journal of the Learning Sciences, 7(3-4), 313-350.

Krajcik, J. S., Blumenfeld, P. C., Marx, R. W., & Soloway, E. (1994). A collaborative model for helping middle grade science teachers learn project-based instruction. The elementary school journal, 94(5), 483-497.

Lang, A., Potter, R. F., & Bolls, P. D. (1999). Something for Nothing: Is Visual Encoding Automatic? Media Psychology, 1(2), 145-163.

Lang, J. M. (2016). Small changes in teaching: The last 5 minutes of class. The chronicle of higher education.

Latimier, A., Peyre, H., & Ramus, F. (2021). A Meta-Analytic Review of the Benefit of Spacing out Retrieval Practice Episodes on Retention. Educational Psychology Review, 33(3), 959-987.

Lee, M., & Larson, R. (2000). The Korean ‘examination hell’: Long hours of studying, distress, and depression. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 29(2), 249-271.

Leppink, J., & Pérez-Fuster, P. (2019). Mental effort, workload, time on task, and certainty: Beyond linear models. Educational Psychology Review, 31(2), 421-438.

Lewis, A., & Smith, D. (1993). Defining higher order thinking. Theory Into Practice, 32(3), 131-137.

Liu, J., Ma, Y., Sun, X., Zhu, Z., & Xu, Y. (2021). A systematic review of higher-order thinking by visualizing its structure through HistCite and CiteSpace software. The Asia-Pacific Education Researcher.

Logan, J. M., Castel, A. D., Haber, S., & Viehman, E. J. (2012). Metacognition and the spacing effect: the role of repetition, feedback, and instruction on judgments of learning for massed and spaced rehearsal. Metacognition and Learning, 7(3), 175-195.

Malmberg, K. J., Raaijmakers, J. G., & Shiffrin, R. M. (2019). 50 years of research sparked by Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968). Memory & cognition, 47(4), 561-574.

Mayes, E., & Howell, A. (2018). The (hidden) injuries of NAPLAN: two standardised test events and the making of ‘at risk’ student subjects. International Journal of Inclusive Education, 22(10), 1108-1123.

McCardle, L., & Hadwin, A. F. (2015). Using multiple, contextualized data sources to measure learners’ perceptions of their self-regulated learning. Metacognition and Learning, 10(1), 43-75.

McDaniel, M. A., & Einstein, G. O. (2020). Training learning strategies to promote self-regulation and transfer: The knowledge, belief, commitment, and planning framework. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 15(6), 1363-1381.

Meinz, E. J., & Hambrick, D. Z. (2010). Deliberate practice is necessary but not sufficient to explain individual differences in piano sight-reading skill: The role of working memory capacity. Psychological science, 21(7), 914-919.

Merikangas, K. R., He, J.-p., Burstein, M., Swanson, S. A., Avenevoli, S., Cui, L., Benjet, C., Georgiades, K., & Swendsen, J. (2010). Lifetime Prevalence of Mental Disorders in U.S. Adolescents: Results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication–Adolescent Supplement (NCS-A). Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 49(10), 980-989.

Morehead, K., Dunlosky, J., & Rawson, K. A. (2019). How Much Mightier Is the Pen than the Keyboard for Note-Taking? A Replication and Extension of Mueller and Oppenheimer (2014). Educational Psychology Review, 31(3), 753-780.

Mueller, P. A., & Oppenheimer, D. M. (2014). The pen is mightier than the keyboard: Advantages of longhand over laptop note taking. Psychological science, 25(6), 1159-1168.

Neal, J. W., Neal, Z. P., Kornbluh, M., Mills, K. J., & Lawlor, J. A. (2015). Brokering the Research–Practice Gap: A typology. American Journal of Community Psychology, 56(3), 422-435.

Newell, A., & Simon, H. A. (1972). Human problem solving (Vol. 104). Prentice-hall Englewood Cliffs, NJ.

Olive, T., & Barbier, M.-L. (2017). Processing time and cognitive effort of longhand note taking when reading and summarizing a structured or linear text. Written Communication, 34(2), 224-246.

Oudman, S., van de Pol, J., & van Gog, T. (2022). Effects of self-scoring their math problem solutions on primary school students’ monitoring and regulation. Metacognition and Learning, 17(1), 213-239.

Ouwehand, K., Koroef, A. v. d., Wong, J., & Paas, F. (2021). Measuring cognitive load: Are there more valid alternatives to Likert rating scales. Frontiers in Education, 6.

Paas, F., Tuovinen, J. E., Tabbers, H., & Van Gerven, P. W. M. (2003). Cognitive load measurement as a means to advance cognitive load theory. Educational Psychologist, 38(1), 63-71.

Paas, F. G. (1992). Training strategies for attaining transfer of problem-solving skill in statistics: a cognitive-load approach. Journal of educational psychology, 84(4), 429.

Paas, F. G., & Van Merriënboer, J. J. (1994). Variability of worked examples and transfer of geometrical problem-solving skills: A cognitive-load approach. Journal of educational psychology, 86(1), 122.

Pastötter, B., & Frings, C. (2019). The Forward Testing Effect is Reliable and Independent of Learners’ Working Memory Capacity. Journal of cognition, 2(1), 37-37.

Pedaste, M., Mäeots, M., Leijen, Ä., & Sarapuu, S. (2012). Improving students’ inquiry skills through reflection and self-regulation scaffolds. Technology, Instruction, Cognition and Learning, 9(1-2), 81-95.

Pedaste, M., & Sarapuu, T. (2006). Developing an effective support system for inquiry learning in a web‐based environment. Journal of computer assisted learning, 22(1), 47-62.

Peper, R. J., & Mayer, R. E. (1978). Note taking as a generative activity. Journal of educational psychology, 70(4), 514.

Peper, R. J., & Mayer, R. E. (1986). Generative effects of note-taking during science lectures. Journal of educational psychology, 78(1), 34.

Peters, D. L. (1972). Effects of note taking and rate of presentation on short-term objective test performance. Journal of educational psychology, 63(3), 276.

Peverly, S. T., Ramaswamy, V., Brown, C., Sumowski, J., Alidoost, M., & Garner, J. (2007). What predicts skill in lecture note taking? Journal of educational psychology, 99(1), 167.

Peverly, S. T., Vekaria, P. C., Reddington, L. A., Sumowski, J. F., Johnson, K. R., & Ramsay, C. M. (2013). The relationship of handwriting speed, working memory, language comprehension and outlines to lecture note‐taking and test‐taking among college students. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 27(1), 115-126.

Plass, J. L., Moreno, R., & Brünken, R. (2010). Cognitive load theory.

Rashty, D. (2003). Traditional learning vs. elearning. Retrieved May, 10, 2011.

Rawson, K. A., & Dunlosky, J. (2013). Relearning attenuates the benefits and costs of spacing. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 142(4), 1113.

Renkl, A. (1997). Learning from worked-out examples: A study on individual differences. Cognitive Science, 21(1), 1-29.

Renkl, A. (2014). Toward an instructionally oriented theory of example-based learning. Cognitive Science, 38(1), 1-37.

Ritchie, D., & Volkl, C. (2000). Effectiveness of Two Generative Learning Strategies in the Science Classroom. School Science and Mathematics, 100(2), 83-89.

Ritchie, S. J., Bates, T. C., & Deary, I. J. (2015). Is education associated with improvements in general cognitive ability, or in specific skills? Developmental psychology, 51(5), 573.

Roediger, H. L., & Karpicke, J. D. (2006). The Power of Testing Memory: Basic Research and Implications for Educational Practice. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 1(3), 181-210.

Rönnebeck, S., Bernholt, S., & Ropohl, M. (2016). Searching for a common ground – A literature review of empirical research on scientific inquiry activities. Studies in Science Education, 52(2), 161-197.

Roodenrys, K., Agostinho, S., Roodenrys, S., & Chandler, P. (2012). Managing one’s own cognitive load when evidence of split attention is present. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 26(6), 878-886.

Rowland, C. A. (2014). The effect of testing versus restudy on retention: a meta-analytic review of the testing effect. Psychological Bulletin, 140(6), 1432.

Sagi, Y., Tavor, I., Hofstetter, S., Tzur-Moryosef, S., Blumenfeld-Katzir, T., & Assaf, Y. (2012). Learning in the Fast Lane: New Insights into Neuroplasticity. Neuron, 73(6), 1195-1203.

Schleicher, A. (2018). Educating Learners for Their Future, Not Our Past. ECNU Review of Education, 1(1), 58-75.

Schnaubert, L., & Schneider, S. (2022). Analysing the relationship between mental load or mental effort and metacomprehension under different conditions of multimedia design [Original Research]. Frontiers in Education, 6.

Schoen, I. (2012). Effects of method and context of note-taking on memory: handwriting versus typing in lecture and textbook-reading contexts.

Schwieren, J., Barenberg, J., & Dutke, S. (2017). The testing effect in the psychology classroom: A meta-analytic perspective. Psychology Learning & Teaching, 16(2), 179-196.

Schworm, S., & Renkl, A. (2006). Computer-supported example-based learning: When instructional explanations reduce self-explanations. Computers & Education, 46(4), 426-445.

Simon, D. A., & Bjork, R. A. (2001). Metacognition in motor learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 27(4), 907.

Simon, H. A., & Gilmartin, K. (1973). A simulation of memory for chess positions. Cognitive Psychology, 5(1), 29-46.

Smith, C. D., & Scarf, D. (2017). Spacing Repetitions Over Long Timescales: A Review and a Reconsolidation Explanation. Frontiers in Psychology, 8, 962-962.

Stark, R., Mandl, H., Gruber, H., & Renkl, A. (2002). Conditions and effects of example elaboration. Learning and instruction, 12(1), 39-60.

Sundberg, M. D., Armstrong, J. E., & Wischusen, E. W. (2005). A reappraisal of the status of introductory biology laboratory education in US colleges & universities. The American Biology Teacher, 67(9), 525-529.

Svinicki, M. (2017). Supporting the Cognitive Skills Behind Note‐Taking (1057-2880). (The National Teaching & Learning Forum, Issue.

Sweller, J. (2011). Cognitive load theory. In Psychology of learning and motivation (Vol. 55, pp. 37-76). Elsevier.

Sweller, J. (2016a). Cognitive load theory, evolutionary educational psychology, and instructional design. In D. C. Geary & D. B. Berch (Eds.), Evolutionary Perspectives on Child Development and Education (pp. 291-306). Springer International Publishing.

Sweller, J. (2016b). Working memory, long-term memory, and instructional design. Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition, 5(4), 360-367.

Sweller, J. (2018). Measuring cognitive load. Perspectives on medical education, 7(1), 1-2.

Sweller, J. (2020). Cognitive load theory and educational technology. Educational Technology Research and Development, 68(1), 1-16.

Sweller, J. (2021). Why Inquiry-based Approaches Harm Students’ Learning. The Centre For Independent Studies.

Sweller, J., & Cooper, G. A. (1985). The use of worked examples as a substitute for problem solving in learning algebra. Cognition and instruction, 2(1), 59-89.

Sweller, J., van Merriënboer, J. J. G., & Paas, F. (2019). Cognitive architecture and instructional design: 20 years later. Educational Psychology Review, 31(2), 261-292.

Taylor, K., & Rohrer, D. (2010). The effects of interleaved practice. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 24(6), 837-848.

Thalmann, M., Souza, A. S., & Oberauer, K. (2019). How does chunking help working memory? J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn, 45(1), 37-55.

Tricot, A., & Sweller, J. (2014). Domain-specific knowledge and why teaching generic skills does not work. Educational Psychology Review, 26(2), 265-283.

van Gog, T., Hoogerheide, V., & van Harsel, M. (2020). The role of mental effort in fostering self-regulated learning with problem-solving tasks. Educational Psychology Review, 32(4), 1055-1072.

Vangsness, L., & Young, M. E. (2021). More isn’t always better: when metacognitive prompts are misleading. Metacognition and Learning, 16(1), 135-156.

VanLehn, K. (1996). Cognitive skill acquisition. Annual review of psychology, 47(1), 513-539.

Weinstein, C. (2007). Model of strategic learning. Clearwater, FL: HandH Publishing.

Weinstein, C. E., Palmer, D., & Schulte, A. C. (1987). Learning and study strategies inventory (LASSI). Clearwater, FL: H & H Publishing.

Weinstein, C. E., Palmer, D. R., & Acee, T. W. (2016). LASSI 3rd edition learning and study strategies inventory. In: Clearwater, FL: H & H Publishing.

Wissman, K. T., Rawson, K. A., & Pyc, M. A. (2012). How and when do students use flashcards? Memory, 20(6), 568-579.

Wittrock, M. C. (1989). Generative Processes of Comprehension. Educational Psychologist, 24(4), 345-376.

Wittrock, M. C. (2010). Learning as a Generative Process. Educational Psychologist, 45(1), 40-45.

Yang, C., Sun, B., Potts, R., Yu, R., Luo, L., & Shanks, D. (2020). Do working memory capacity and test anxiety modulate the beneficial effects of testing on new learning? Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 26.

Yang, H. H., Shi, Y., Yang, H., & Pu, Q. (2020). The Impacts of Digital Note-Taking on Classroom Instruction: A Literature Review (978-981-33-4594-2). L.-K. Lee, L. H. U, F. L. Wang, S. K. S. Cheung, O. Au, & K. C. Li.

Youssef-Shalala, A., Ayres, P., Schubert, C., & Sweller, J. (2014). Using a general problem-solving strategy to promote transfer. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 20(3), 215.

Zaidi, N. L. B., Grob, K. L., Monrad, S. M., Kurtz, J. B., Tai, A., Ahmed, A. Z., Gruppen, L. D., & Santen, S. A. (2018). Pushing critical thinking skills with multiple-choice questions: does bloom’s taxonomy work? Academic Medicine, 93(6).

Zoller, U. (2016). From algorithmic science teaching to “know” to research-based transformative inter-transdisciplinary learning to “think”: Problem solving in the STES/STEM and sustainability contexts. In N. Papadouris, A. Hadjigeorgiou, & C. P. Constantinou (Eds.), Insights from research in science teaching and learning: Selected papers from the ESERA 2013 conference (pp. 153-168). Springer International Publishing.

Zulkiply, N., & Burt, J. S. (2013). The exemplar interleaving effect in inductive learning: Moderation by the difficulty of category discriminations. Memory & cognition, 41(1), 16-27.

Learn about the program

Explanation, Expectations and Demonstration

Dr Justin will explain how the program was designed and the key principles and approaches that were considered. Watch this webinar if you are interested in learning more about how the program works and how it is different to other programs.

Duration: 45 minutes

Watch the webinar now

Supporting research

Our approach is unique from a research perspective because we look at learning primarily from a highly practical learner’s perspective (rather than the educator’s).

The primary principles that drive our methodologies are self-regulated learning and metacognition, sustainable learning in education, higher-order learning and higher-order thinking skills, cognitive load theory and the relationship with self-regulated higher-order learning, experiential learning and reflective practice, growth mindset, and behavioural science (especially around behavioural change and habit formation).

Brief research synthesis

Report on Learning

This report is a superficial overview of some of the core principles we have found pertinent to practical learning skills development and how the iCanStudy program is designed around each consideration. It is also a reference document for those wishing to learn broadly about some trending topics within the learning science domain. Useful figures are attached below for convenience.

Updated: August 2022
Cite this report as: Sung, J (2022). Report on Learning: A Practical and Learner-Centric Perspective. iCanStudy

Program design

Curriculum overview

This document outlines the primary methodologies and relationships between core concepts taught in the iCanStudy academic program.

Results you'll want to share

After 4 weeks on the program...

More confident


Report feeling more confident to achieve their academic goals.

Less procrastinating


Report less procrastination, with 59% experiencing “much less” to “none”.

More efficient


Improved their studying efficiency by at least 30%. 100% of students reported at least 5%.

Honestly, one of the best decisions I've made.
Minqing Ning, Australia

Program pricing

Join over 10,000 learners from 120 countries, for less than $2 a day!

Prices are in Australian dollars (AUD). You can also pay in USD, GBP or Euro at checkout.
If you are in financial hardship, please view our scholarships.

4 month enrolment

$209 AUD

Most suitable for proficient learners wanting to take their skills to the next level.

1 year enrolment

$499 AUD

Most suitable for learners who are looking for major upgrades to their learning system.

*Subject to terms and conditions

Available Coupon