Learn about the course
How it Works
Explanation, Expectations and Demonstration
In this webinar
Dr Justin will explain how the course was designed and the key principles and approaches that were considered. Watch this webinar if you are interested in learning more about how the course works and how it is different to other courses.
Duration: 45 minutes
Many of the methods used in conventional learning are based on outdated or inaccurate interpretations of research. Furthermore, there is very little research that considers the practical aspects of learning under real-world pressures, from a learner’s perspective.
The uniqueness of the iCanStudy approach is fundamentally due to a combination of the following:
- A strong focus on the learner’s perspective (rather than the institution or educator’s)
- A practice-first approach instead of overly theoretical or abstract ideas that are common in academic research
- A complete re-conceptualisation of learning based on only the most recent research, instead of simply iterating on existing norms and conventions
- High frequency feedback and optimisation based on heavy interaction with real learners using our approaches for real challenges
This combination has unintentionally led to a novel and unconventional approach to learning while abiding by the principles and findings of latest research in learning science, without many of the limitations that are increasingly found with traditional methods.
Most learning tips and techniques are either isolated and unsustainable, hard to use in different contexts, or simply do not stand up to real-world demands.
We have carefully combined, modified, and developed multiple techniques and strategies to produce a flexible and adaptable learning system that you can use for most kinds of learning.
Our learning system is designed to exploit the way your brain tends to work (based on the latest research). Unlike many conventional methods of learning, our system works with your brain, instead of against it.
The result is:
- More confidence with learning
- Better retention of newly learned information
- Deeper understanding and greater ability to apply information for complex problem solving
- Faster skill development
- More enjoyment of learning!
While it sounds too good to be true, it is a predictable outcome from a system designed purely based on what works, with everything else surgically removed, and then optimised for several years across thousands of students.
For a more comprehensive overview of the principles we considered when designing the program and a history of our development, please read the Report on Learning below.
The iCanStudy program implements the following core aspects:
- Intrinsic cognitive load optimisation through self-regulatory practice.
- The usage of note-taking to facilitate beneficial cognitive processes, as per cognitive load theory.
- The combination of techniques in a full system whereby each technique complements or enhances other techniques.
- Development of high procedural, conditional, and declarative knowledge competency through the strategic implementation of interleaving and efficient encoding or re-encoding activities.
- Development of self-sustainable learning behaviours (sometimes referred to as sustainable learning in education) through experiential learning cycles and direct training in meta-learning (learning metacognition), improving monitoring judgement accuracy (with respects to cue utilisation), and cognitive-generic skills instruction.
- Facilitation of early-stage higher-order thinking skills and attainment of higher-order learning as a priming step for creating broad knowledge schemas.
- Facilitation of growth mindset development and highly critical reflective practice (designed for a positive expected value of marginal improvements).
- Improving focus and attention management.
- Improving time and task management.
Supplementary concepts and techniques are omitted in this list for conciseness.
The iCanStudy program is a cognitive-generic skills training program. This means that the skills that are developed are highly transferrable across multiple disciplines and fields of knowledge.
In much the same way that reading and writing skills, arithmetic skills, critical thinking skills, planning and organisational skills, and problem-solving skills can be applied across different disciplines, the skills we teach around learning are a highly specialised and comprehensive system of tools that learners can apply and modify for different needs.
The following domains are considered an ideal fit whereby almost all techniques will be applicable:
- Humanities and arts
- Political science
- Theoretical mathematics
- Art history
The following domains are considered a good fit whereby many techniques will be applicable, but a few will require modification or are unnecessary:
- Coding and programming
- Music theory
- English writing
The following domains are considered a partial fit whereby some techniques will be effective, but many will be unnecessary or require modification:
- Second language learning
The following domains are considered a poor fit whereby most techniques will be unnecessary or require modification:
- Performing arts (e.g. drama, music, dance)
- Fine arts
The program is designed with busy individuals in mind. It is recommended that at least 2 to 3 hours per week are available to spend on course content. There is minimal benefit from spending more than 10 hours per week on course content, as improvements will be significantly limited by the amount of skills practice.
There is an expectation that members will practise the skills they learn regularly on top of the time spent working through course content. However, as the new skills will replace existing techniques and approaches, this should not add significant additional time compared to the existing time you are already spending on learning.
For example, if you spend 20 hours per week on learning, you may spend 2 hours per week learning new skills, then replace 10 hours per week with new skills.
Therefore, you would spend 22 total hours per week engaging in either learning or the iCanStudy program:
- 2 hours of iCanStudy content
- 10 hours of old methods of learning
- 10 hours of new methods that have replaced old methods
The rate of progress and improvement for an individual following a schedule like in the above example would be significant.
Adesope, O. O., Trevisan, D. A., & Sundararajan, N. (2017). Rethinking the use of tests: A meta-analysis of practice testing. Review of Educational Research, 87(3), 659-701.
Afflerbach, P., Cho, B.-Y., & Kim, J.-Y. (2015). Conceptualizing and assessing higher-order thinking in reading. Theory Into Practice, 54(3), 203-212.
Agarwal, P. K., Finley, J. R., Rose, N. S., & Roediger, H. L., 3rd. (2017). Benefits from retrieval practice are greater for students with lower working memory capacity. Memory, 25(6), 764-771. https://doi.org/10.1080/09658211.2016.1220579
Aiken, E. G., Thomas, G. S., & Shennum, W. A. (1975). Memory for a lecture: effects of notes, lecture rate, and informational density. Journal of educational psychology, 67(3), 439.
Aldekhyl, S., Cavalcanti, R. B., & Naismith, L. M. (2018). Cognitive load predicts point-of-care ultrasound simulator performance. Perspectives on medical education, 7(1), 23-32. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40037-017-0392-7
Areepattamannil, S., Cairns, D., & Dickson, M. (2020). Teacher-Directed Versus Inquiry-Based Science Instruction: Investigating Links to Adolescent Students’ Science Dispositions Across 66 Countries. Journal of Science Teacher Education, 31(6), 675-704. https://doi.org/10.1080/1046560X.2020.1753309
Atkinson, R. C., & Shiffrin, R. M. (1968). Human memory: A proposed system and its control processes. In Psychology of learning and motivation (Vol. 2, pp. 89-195). Elsevier.
Austin, K., Orcutt, S., & Rosso, J. (2001). How people learn: Introduction to learning theories. The learning classroom: Theory into practice–a telecourse for teacher education and professional development.
Australian Government Department of Health. (2015). The mental health of children and adolescents: Report on the second Australian Child and Adolescent Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing. https://www.health.gov.au/resources/publications/the-mental-health-of-children-and-adolescents
Ayres, P. (2006). Impact of reducing intrinsic cognitive load on learning in a mathematical domain. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 20(3), 287-298. https://doi.org/10.1002/acp.1245
Baars, M., & Wijnia, L. (2018). The relation between task-specific motivational profiles and training of self-regulated learning skills. Learning and Individual Differences, 64, 125-137. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lindif.2018.05.007
Baars, M., Wijnia, L., de Bruin, A., & Paas, F. (2020). The relation between students’ effort and monitoring judgments during learning: a meta-analysis. Educational Psychology Review, 32(4), 979-1002. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10648-020-09569-3
Bahrick, H. P., Bahrick, L. E., Bahrick, A. S., & Bahrick, P. E. (1993). Maintenance of foreign language vocabulary and the spacing effect. Psychological science, 4(5), 316-321.
Bahrick, H. P., & Hall, L. K. (2005). The importance of retrieval failures to long-term retention: A metacognitive explanation of the spacing effect. Journal of Memory and Language, 52(4), 566-577.
Barrow, L. H. (2006). A brief history of inquiry: From Dewey to standards. Journal of Science Teacher Education, 17(3), 265-278.
Bartlett, F. C., & Bartlett, F. C. (1995). Remembering: A study in experimental and social psychology. Cambridge University Press.
Berliner, D. C. (1971). Aptitude-Treatment Interactions in Two Studies of Learning from Lecture Instruction.
Bielaczyc, K., Pirolli, P. L., & Brown, A. L. (1995). Training in self-explanation and self-regulation strategies: Investigating the effects of knowledge acquisition activities on problem solving. Cognition and instruction, 13(2), 221-252.
Biggs, J. (1996). Enhancing teaching through constructive alignment. Higher education, 32(3), 347-364.
Birnbaum, M. S., Kornell, N., Bjork, E. L., & Bjork, R. A. (2013). Why interleaving enhances inductive learning: The roles of discrimination and retrieval. Memory & cognition, 41(3), 392-402.
Bjork, R. A., Dunlosky, J., & Kornell, N. (2013). Self-regulated learning: Beliefs, techniques, and illusions. Annual review of psychology, 64, 417-444. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-psych-113011-143823
Blissett, S., Sibbald, M., Kok, E., & van Merrienboer, J. (2018). Optimizing self-regulation of performance: is mental effort a cue? Advances in Health Sciences Education, 23(5), 891-898. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10459-018-9838-x
Boekaerts, M., & Corno, L. (2005). Self-regulation in the classroom: A perspective on assessment and intervention. Applied Psychology, 54(2), 199-231. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1464-0597.2005.00205.x
Bosch, E., Seifried, E., & Spinath, B. (2021). What successful students do: Evidence-based learning activities matter for students’ performance in higher education beyond prior knowledge, motivation, and prior achievement. Learning and Individual Differences, 91, 102056. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lindif.2021.102056
Bound, J., Hershbein, B., & Long, B. T. (2009). Playing the admissions game: Student reactions to increasing college competition. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 23(4), 119-146.
Bretzing, B. H., & Kulhavy, R. W. (1979). Notetaking and depth of processing. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 4(2), 145-153.
Bruel-Jungerman, E., Davis, S., & Laroche, S. (2007). Brain plasticity mechanisms and memory: a party of four. The Neuroscientist, 13(5), 492-505.
Bruner, J. S. (1961). The act of discovery. Harvard educational review.
Bui, D. C., & McDaniel, M. A. (2015). Enhancing learning during lecture note-taking using outlines and illustrative diagrams. Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition, 4(2), 129-135.
Bui, D. C., Myerson, J., & Hale, S. (2013). Note-taking with computers: Exploring alternative strategies for improved recall. Journal of educational psychology, 105(2), 299.
Butler, A. C., Karpicke, J. D., & Roediger, H. L., 3rd. (2007). The effect of type and timing of feedback on learning from multiple-choice tests. J Exp Psychol Appl, 13(4), 273-281. https://doi.org/10.1037/1076-898x.13.4.273
Callender, A. A., & McDaniel, M. A. (2009). The limited benefits of rereading educational texts. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 34(1), 30-41. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cedpsych.2008.07.001
Carey, B. (2015). How we learn: The surprising truth about when, where, and why it happens. Random House Trade Paperbacks.
Carneiro, P., Lapa, A., & Finn, B. (2021). Memory updating after retrieval: when new information is false or correct. Memory, 1-20. https://doi.org/10.1080/09658211.2021.1968438
Carpenter, S. K. (2017). 2.26 – Spacing Effects on Learning and Memory☆. In J. H. Byrne (Ed.), Learning and memory: a comprehensive reference (second edition) (pp. 465-485). Academic Press. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-809324-5.21054-7
Carpenter, S. K., Endres, T., & Hui, L. (2020). Students’ use of retrieval in self-regulated learning: Implications for monitoring and regulating effortful learning experiences. Educational Psychology Review, 32(4), 1029-1054. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10648-020-09562-w
Casteleyn, J., Mottart, A., & Valcke, M. (2013). The impact of graphic organisers on learning from presentations. Technology, Pedagogy and Education, 22(3), 283-301. https://doi.org/10.1080/1475939X.2013.784621
Cepeda, N. J., Coburn, N., Rohrer, D., Wixted, J. T., Mozer, M. C., & Pashler, H. (2009). Optimizing Distributed Practice. Experimental Psychology, 56(4), 236-246. https://doi.org/10.1027/1618-3184.108.40.206
Chan, J. C. K., Manley, K. D., & Ahn, D. (2020). Does retrieval potentiate new learning when retrieval stops but new learning continues? Journal of Memory and Language, 115, 104150. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jml.2020.104150
Chan, J. C. K., Meissner, C. A., & Davis, S. D. (2018). Retrieval potentiates new learning: A theoretical and meta-analytic review. Psychological Bulletin, 144(11), 1111-1146. https://doi.org/10.1037/bul0000166
Chechile, R. A., & Ehrensbeck, K. (1983). Long-term storage losses: A dilemma for multistore models. The Journal of general psychology, 109(1), 15-30.
Chen, O., Castro-Alonso, J. C., Paas, F., & Sweller, J. (2018a). Extending cognitive load theory to incorporate working memory resource depletion: evidence from the spacing effect. Educational Psychology Review, 30(2), 483-501.
Chen, O., Castro-Alonso, J. C., Paas, F., & Sweller, J. (2018b). Undesirable difficulty effects in the learning of high-element interactivity materials [Review]. Frontiers in Psychology, 9. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.01483
Chen, O., Kalyuga, S., & Sweller, J. (2015). The worked example effect, the generation effect, and element interactivity. Journal of educational psychology, 107(3), 689.
Chiesi, H. L., Spilich, G. J., & Voss, J. F. (1979). Acquisition of domain-related information in relation to high and low domain knowledge. Journal of verbal learning and verbal behavior, 18(3), 257-273.
Conklin, J. (2005). A taxonomy for learning, teaching, and assessing: A revision of Bloom’s taxonomy of educational objectives complete edition. In: JSTOR.
Constantinou, C. P., Tsivitanidou, O. E., & Rybska, E. (2018). What Is Inquiry-Based Science Teaching and Learning? In O. E. Tsivitanidou, P. Gray, E. Rybska, L. Louca, & C. P. Constantinou (Eds.), Professional Development for Inquiry-Based Science Teaching and Learning (pp. 1-23). Springer International Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-91406-0_1
Craig, K., Hale, D., Grainger, C., & Stewart, M. E. (2020). Evaluating metacognitive self-reports: Systematic reviews of the value of self-report in metacognitive research. Metacognition and Learning, 15(2), 155-213. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11409-020-09222-y
de Bruin, A. B., Roelle, J., Carpenter, S. K., & Baars, M. (2020). Synthesizing cognitive load and self-regulation theory: A theoretical framework and research agenda. Educational Psychology Review, 32(4), 903-915. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10648-020-09576-4
Dewey, J. (1933). A restatement of the relation of reflective thinking to the educative process. DC Heath.
Di Vesta, F. J., & Gray, G. S. (1972). Listening and note taking. Journal of educational psychology, 63(1), 8.
Didau, D. (2015). What if everything you knew about education was wrong? Crown House Publishing.
Dominguez, A., & Novak, H. (2019). National Survey of Student Engagement (NSSE) 2019 Results (Institutional Research, Planning and Effectiveness, Issue.
Dorier, J., & Maab, K. (2012). The PRIMAS Project: Promoting inquiry-based learning (IBL) in mathematics and science education across Europe PRIMAS context analysis for the implementation of IBL: International Synthesis Report PRIMAS–Promoting Inquiry-Based Learning in Mathemati (Vol. 1). Lokaliseret på: www. primasproject. eu/servlet/supportBinaryFiles.
Dunning, D. (2011). The Dunning–Kruger effect: On being ignorant of one’s own ignorance. In Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 44, pp. 247-296). Elsevier.
Ebbinghaus, H. (1885). Über das gedächtnis: untersuchungen zur experimentellen psychologie. Duncker & Humblot.
Edelson, D. C., Gordin, D. N., & Pea, R. D. (1999). Addressing the challenges of inquiry-based learning through technology and curriculum design. Journal of the Learning Sciences, 8(3-4), 391-450.
Egan, D. E., & Schwartz, B. J. (1979). Chunking in recall of symbolic drawings. Memory & cognition, 7(2), 149-158.
Einstein, G. O., Morris, J., & Smith, S. (1985). Note-taking, individual differences, and memory for lecture information. Journal of educational psychology, 77(5), 522.
Entwistle, N., & Tait, H. (1995). Approaches to studying and perceptions of the learning environment across disciplines. New directions for teaching and learning, 1995(64), 93-103.
Ericsson, K. A., & Charness, N. (1994). Expert performance: Its structure and acquisition. American psychologist, 49(8), 725.
Erskine, H. E., Baxter, A. J., Patton, G., Moffitt, T. E., Patel, V., Whiteford, H. A., & Scott, J. G. (2017). The global coverage of prevalence data for mental disorders in children and adolescents. Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences, 26(4), 395-402. https://doi.org/10.1017/S2045796015001158
Fernández-Alonso, R., Álvarez-Díaz, M., Suárez-Álvarez, J., & Muñiz, J. (2017). Students’ Achievement and Homework Assignment Strategies [Original Research]. Frontiers in Psychology, 8(286). https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00286
Fong, C. J., Krou, M. R., Johnston-Ashton, K., Hoff, M. A., Lin, S., & Gonzales, C. (2021). LASSI’s great adventure: A meta-analysis of the Learning and Study Strategies Inventory and academic outcomes. Educational Research Review, 34, 100407. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.edurev.2021.100407
Geary, D. C. (2008). An evolutionarily informed education science. Educational Psychologist, 43(4), 179-195.
Geary, D. C., & Geary, D. C. (2007). Educating the evolved mind. Educating the evolved mind, 1-99.
Gobet, F., & Clarkson, G. (2004). Chunks in expert memory: Evidence for the magical number four … or is it two? Memory, 12(6), 732-747. https://doi.org/10.1080/09658210344000530
Gobet, F., Lane, P. C. R., Croker, S., Cheng, P. C. H., Jones, G., Oliver, I., & Pine, J. M. (2001). Chunking mechanisms in human learning. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 5(6), 236-243. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1364-6613(00)01662-4
Greving, S., & Richter, T. (2018). Examining the Testing Effect in University Teaching: Retrievability and Question Format Matter [Original Research]. Frontiers in Psychology, 9(2412). https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.02412
Groep, L. (2021). The relationship between mental effort and judgement of learning on students’ perceived study effectiveness and their decisions on the use of future study strategies
Hadwin, A. F., Nesbit, J. C., Jamieson-Noel, D., Code, J., & Winne, P. H. (2007). Examining trace data to explore self-regulated learning. Metacognition and Learning, 2(2), 107-124. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11409-007-9016-7
Hadwin, A. F., Sukhawathanakul, P., Rostampour, R., & Bahena-Olivares, L. M. (2022). Do self-regulated learning practices and intervention mitigate the impact of academic challenges and COVID-19 distress on academic performance during online learning? [Original Research]. Frontiers in Psychology, 13. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2022.813529
Hall, T. (2002). Differentiated instruction. http://www.cast.org/publications/ncac/ncac_diffinstruc.html
Händel, M., Harder, B., & Dresel, M. (2020). Enhanced monitoring accuracy and test performance: Incremental effects of judgment training over and above repeated testing. Learning and instruction, 65, 101245. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.learninstruc.2019.101245
Hays, M. J., Kornell, N., & Bjork, R. A. (2010). The costs and benefits of providing feedback during learning. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 17(6), 797-801. https://doi.org/10.3758/PBR.17.6.797
Hilbert, T. S., & Renkl, A. (2009). Learning how to use a computer-based concept-mapping tool: Self-explaining examples helps. Computers in Human Behavior, 25(2), 267-274.
Izawa, C. (1999). On human memory: Evolution, progress, and reflections on the 30th anniversary of the Atkinson-Shiffrin model. Psychology Press.
Jansen, R. S., Lakens, D., & Ijsselsteijn, W. A. (2017). An integrative review of the cognitive costs and benefits of note-taking. Educational Research Review, 22, 223-233. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.edurev.2017.10.001
Jeffries, R., Turner, A. A., Polson, P. G., & Atwood, M. E. (1981). The processes involved in designing software. Cognitive skills and their acquisition, 255, 283.
Johnson, D. W. (1991). Cooperative Learning: Increasing College Faculty Instructional Productivity. ASHE-ERIC Higher Education Report No. 4, 1991. ERIC.
Kahneman, D. (2011). Thinking, fast and slow. Macmillan.
Kalberg, J. R., Lane, K. L., Driscoll, S., & Wehby, J. (2011). Systematic Screening for Emotional and Behavioral Disorders at the High School Level: A Formidable and Necessary Task. Remedial and Special Education, 32(6), 506-520. https://doi.org/10.1177/0741932510362508
Kalyuga, S., Chandler, P., Tuovinen, J., & Sweller, J. (2001). When problem solving is superior to studying worked examples. Journal of educational psychology, 93(3), 579.
Karpicke, J. D., Butler, A. C., & Roediger Iii, H. L. (2009). Metacognitive strategies in student learning: Do students practise retrieval when they study on their own? Memory, 17(4), 471-479. https://doi.org/10.1080/09658210802647009
Karpicke, J. D., & Roediger, H. L. (2008). The Critical Importance of Retrieval for Learning. Science, 319(5865), 966-968. https://doi.org/doi:10.1126/science.1152408
Katayama, A. D., & Robinson, D. H. (2000). Getting students “partially” involved in note-taking using graphic organizers. The Journal of Experimental Education, 68(2), 119-133.
Kauffman, D. F., Zhao, R., & Yang, Y.-S. (2011). Effects of online note taking formats and self-monitoring prompts on learning from online text: Using technology to enhance self-regulated learning. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 36(4), 313-322.
Khalaf, B. K. (2018). Traditional and Inquiry-Based Learning Pedagogy: A Systematic Critical Review. International Journal of Instruction, 11(4), 545-564.
Kiewra, K. A. (1989). A review of note-taking: The encoding-storage paradigm and beyond. Educational Psychology Review, 1(2), 147-172.
Kiewra, K. A., & Benton, S. L. (1988). The relationship between information-processing ability and notetaking. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 13(1), 33-44.
Kiewra, K. A., Benton, S. L., & Lewis, L. B. (1987). Qualitative aspects of notetaking and their relationship with information-processing ability and academic achievement. Journal of Instructional Psychology, 14(3), 110.
King, A. (1992). Comparison of Self-Questioning, Summarizing, and Notetaking-Review as Strategies for Learning from Lectures. American educational research journal, 29(2), 303-323. https://doi.org/10.2307/1163370
Kiraly, D. (2005). Project-based learning: A case for situated translation. Meta: journal des traducteurs/Meta: Translators’ Journal, 50(4), 1098-1111.
Kirk-Johnson, A., Galla, B. M., & Fraundorf, S. H. (2019). Perceiving effort as poor learning: The misinterpreted-effort hypothesis of how experienced effort and perceived learning relate to study strategy choice. Cognitive Psychology, 115, 101237. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cogpsych.2019.101237
Kliegl, O., & Bäuml, K.-H. T. (2021). When retrieval practice promotes new learning – The critical role of study material. Journal of Memory and Language, 120, 104253. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jml.2021.104253
Kolb, D. A. (2014). Experiential learning: Experience as the source of learning and development. FT press.
Koriat, A. (1997). Monitoring one’s own knowledge during study: A cue-utilization approach to judgments of learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 126(4), 349. https://doi.org/10.1037/0096-34220.127.116.119
Koriat, A., & Bjork, R. A. (2005). Illusions of competence in monitoring one’s knowledge during study. J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn, 31(2), 187-194. https://doi.org/10.1037/0278-7318.104.22.168
Kornell, N., Castel, A. D., Eich, T. S., & Bjork, R. A. (2010). Spacing as the friend of both memory and induction in young and older adults. Psychology and aging, 25(2), 498.
Krajcik, J., Blumenfeld, P. C., Marx, R. W., Bass, K. M., Fredricks, J., & Soloway, E. (1998). Inquiry in project-based science classrooms: Initial attempts by middle school students. Journal of the Learning Sciences, 7(3-4), 313-350.
Krajcik, J. S., Blumenfeld, P. C., Marx, R. W., & Soloway, E. (1994). A collaborative model for helping middle grade science teachers learn project-based instruction. The elementary school journal, 94(5), 483-497.
Lang, A., Potter, R. F., & Bolls, P. D. (1999). Something for Nothing: Is Visual Encoding Automatic? Media Psychology, 1(2), 145-163. https://doi.org/10.1207/s1532785xmep0102_4
Lang, J. M. (2016). Small changes in teaching: The last 5 minutes of class. The chronicle of higher education.
Latimier, A., Peyre, H., & Ramus, F. (2021). A Meta-Analytic Review of the Benefit of Spacing out Retrieval Practice Episodes on Retention. Educational Psychology Review, 33(3), 959-987. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10648-020-09572-8
Lee, M., & Larson, R. (2000). The Korean ‘examination hell’: Long hours of studying, distress, and depression. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 29(2), 249-271.
Leppink, J., & Pérez-Fuster, P. (2019). Mental effort, workload, time on task, and certainty: Beyond linear models. Educational Psychology Review, 31(2), 421-438. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10648-018-09460-2
Lewis, A., & Smith, D. (1993). Defining higher order thinking. Theory Into Practice, 32(3), 131-137.
Liu, J., Ma, Y., Sun, X., Zhu, Z., & Xu, Y. (2021). A systematic review of higher-order thinking by visualizing its structure through HistCite and CiteSpace software. The Asia-Pacific Education Researcher. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40299-021-00614-5
Logan, J. M., Castel, A. D., Haber, S., & Viehman, E. J. (2012). Metacognition and the spacing effect: the role of repetition, feedback, and instruction on judgments of learning for massed and spaced rehearsal. Metacognition and Learning, 7(3), 175-195.
Malmberg, K. J., Raaijmakers, J. G., & Shiffrin, R. M. (2019). 50 years of research sparked by Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968). Memory & cognition, 47(4), 561-574.
Mayes, E., & Howell, A. (2018). The (hidden) injuries of NAPLAN: two standardised test events and the making of ‘at risk’ student subjects. International Journal of Inclusive Education, 22(10), 1108-1123. https://doi.org/10.1080/13603116.2017.1415383
McCardle, L., & Hadwin, A. F. (2015). Using multiple, contextualized data sources to measure learners’ perceptions of their self-regulated learning. Metacognition and Learning, 10(1), 43-75. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11409-014-9132-0
McDaniel, M. A., & Einstein, G. O. (2020). Training learning strategies to promote self-regulation and transfer: The knowledge, belief, commitment, and planning framework. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 15(6), 1363-1381. https://doi.org/10.1177/1745691620920723
Meinz, E. J., & Hambrick, D. Z. (2010). Deliberate practice is necessary but not sufficient to explain individual differences in piano sight-reading skill: The role of working memory capacity. Psychological science, 21(7), 914-919.
Merikangas, K. R., He, J.-p., Burstein, M., Swanson, S. A., Avenevoli, S., Cui, L., Benjet, C., Georgiades, K., & Swendsen, J. (2010). Lifetime Prevalence of Mental Disorders in U.S. Adolescents: Results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication–Adolescent Supplement (NCS-A). Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 49(10), 980-989. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaac.2010.05.017
Morehead, K., Dunlosky, J., & Rawson, K. A. (2019). How Much Mightier Is the Pen than the Keyboard for Note-Taking? A Replication and Extension of Mueller and Oppenheimer (2014). Educational Psychology Review, 31(3), 753-780. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10648-019-09468-2
Mueller, P. A., & Oppenheimer, D. M. (2014). The pen is mightier than the keyboard: Advantages of longhand over laptop note taking. Psychological science, 25(6), 1159-1168.
Neal, J. W., Neal, Z. P., Kornbluh, M., Mills, K. J., & Lawlor, J. A. (2015). Brokering the Research–Practice Gap: A typology. American Journal of Community Psychology, 56(3), 422-435. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10464-015-9745-8
Newell, A., & Simon, H. A. (1972). Human problem solving (Vol. 104). Prentice-hall Englewood Cliffs, NJ.
Olive, T., & Barbier, M.-L. (2017). Processing time and cognitive effort of longhand note taking when reading and summarizing a structured or linear text. Written Communication, 34(2), 224-246.
Oudman, S., van de Pol, J., & van Gog, T. (2022). Effects of self-scoring their math problem solutions on primary school students’ monitoring and regulation. Metacognition and Learning, 17(1), 213-239. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11409-021-09281-9
Ouwehand, K., Koroef, A. v. d., Wong, J., & Paas, F. (2021). Measuring cognitive load: Are there more valid alternatives to Likert rating scales. Frontiers in Education, 6. https://doi.org/10.3389/feduc.2021.702616
Paas, F., Tuovinen, J. E., Tabbers, H., & Van Gerven, P. W. M. (2003). Cognitive load measurement as a means to advance cognitive load theory. Educational Psychologist, 38(1), 63-71. https://doi.org/10.1207/S15326985EP3801_8
Paas, F. G. (1992). Training strategies for attaining transfer of problem-solving skill in statistics: a cognitive-load approach. Journal of educational psychology, 84(4), 429.
Paas, F. G., & Van Merriënboer, J. J. (1994). Variability of worked examples and transfer of geometrical problem-solving skills: A cognitive-load approach. Journal of educational psychology, 86(1), 122.
Pastötter, B., & Frings, C. (2019). The Forward Testing Effect is Reliable and Independent of Learners’ Working Memory Capacity. Journal of cognition, 2(1), 37-37. https://doi.org/10.5334/joc.82
Pedaste, M., Mäeots, M., Leijen, Ä., & Sarapuu, S. (2012). Improving students’ inquiry skills through reflection and self-regulation scaffolds. Technology, Instruction, Cognition and Learning, 9(1-2), 81-95.
Pedaste, M., & Sarapuu, T. (2006). Developing an effective support system for inquiry learning in a web‐based environment. Journal of computer assisted learning, 22(1), 47-62.
Peper, R. J., & Mayer, R. E. (1978). Note taking as a generative activity. Journal of educational psychology, 70(4), 514.
Peper, R. J., & Mayer, R. E. (1986). Generative effects of note-taking during science lectures. Journal of educational psychology, 78(1), 34.
Peters, D. L. (1972). Effects of note taking and rate of presentation on short-term objective test performance. Journal of educational psychology, 63(3), 276.
Peverly, S. T., Ramaswamy, V., Brown, C., Sumowski, J., Alidoost, M., & Garner, J. (2007). What predicts skill in lecture note taking? Journal of educational psychology, 99(1), 167.
Peverly, S. T., Vekaria, P. C., Reddington, L. A., Sumowski, J. F., Johnson, K. R., & Ramsay, C. M. (2013). The relationship of handwriting speed, working memory, language comprehension and outlines to lecture note‐taking and test‐taking among college students. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 27(1), 115-126.
Plass, J. L., Moreno, R., & Brünken, R. (2010). Cognitive load theory.
Rashty, D. (2003). Traditional learning vs. elearning. Retrieved May, 10, 2011.
Rawson, K. A., & Dunlosky, J. (2013). Relearning attenuates the benefits and costs of spacing. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 142(4), 1113.
Renkl, A. (1997). Learning from worked-out examples: A study on individual differences. Cognitive Science, 21(1), 1-29.
Renkl, A. (2014). Toward an instructionally oriented theory of example-based learning. Cognitive Science, 38(1), 1-37. https://doi.org/10.1111/cogs.12086
Ritchie, D., & Volkl, C. (2000). Effectiveness of Two Generative Learning Strategies in the Science Classroom. School Science and Mathematics, 100(2), 83-89. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1949-8594.2000.tb17240.x
Ritchie, S. J., Bates, T. C., & Deary, I. J. (2015). Is education associated with improvements in general cognitive ability, or in specific skills? Developmental psychology, 51(5), 573.
Roediger, H. L., & Karpicke, J. D. (2006). The Power of Testing Memory: Basic Research and Implications for Educational Practice. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 1(3), 181-210. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-6916.2006.00012.x
Rönnebeck, S., Bernholt, S., & Ropohl, M. (2016). Searching for a common ground – A literature review of empirical research on scientific inquiry activities. Studies in Science Education, 52(2), 161-197. https://doi.org/10.1080/03057267.2016.1206351
Roodenrys, K., Agostinho, S., Roodenrys, S., & Chandler, P. (2012). Managing one’s own cognitive load when evidence of split attention is present. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 26(6), 878-886. https://doi.org/10.1002/acp.2889
Rowland, C. A. (2014). The effect of testing versus restudy on retention: a meta-analytic review of the testing effect. Psychological Bulletin, 140(6), 1432.
Sagi, Y., Tavor, I., Hofstetter, S., Tzur-Moryosef, S., Blumenfeld-Katzir, T., & Assaf, Y. (2012). Learning in the Fast Lane: New Insights into Neuroplasticity. Neuron, 73(6), 1195-1203. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2012.01.025
Schleicher, A. (2018). Educating Learners for Their Future, Not Our Past. ECNU Review of Education, 1(1), 58-75. https://doi.org/10.30926/ecnuroe2018010104
Schnaubert, L., & Schneider, S. (2022). Analysing the relationship between mental load or mental effort and metacomprehension under different conditions of multimedia design [Original Research]. Frontiers in Education, 6. https://doi.org/10.3389/feduc.2021.648319
Schoen, I. (2012). Effects of method and context of note-taking on memory: handwriting versus typing in lecture and textbook-reading contexts.
Schwieren, J., Barenberg, J., & Dutke, S. (2017). The testing effect in the psychology classroom: A meta-analytic perspective. Psychology Learning & Teaching, 16(2), 179-196.
Schworm, S., & Renkl, A. (2006). Computer-supported example-based learning: When instructional explanations reduce self-explanations. Computers & Education, 46(4), 426-445. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2004.08.011
Simon, D. A., & Bjork, R. A. (2001). Metacognition in motor learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 27(4), 907.
Simon, H. A., & Gilmartin, K. (1973). A simulation of memory for chess positions. Cognitive Psychology, 5(1), 29-46.
Smith, C. D., & Scarf, D. (2017). Spacing Repetitions Over Long Timescales: A Review and a Reconsolidation Explanation. Frontiers in Psychology, 8, 962-962. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00962
Stark, R., Mandl, H., Gruber, H., & Renkl, A. (2002). Conditions and effects of example elaboration. Learning and instruction, 12(1), 39-60.
Sundberg, M. D., Armstrong, J. E., & Wischusen, E. W. (2005). A reappraisal of the status of introductory biology laboratory education in US colleges & universities. The American Biology Teacher, 67(9), 525-529.
Svinicki, M. (2017). Supporting the Cognitive Skills Behind Note‐Taking (1057-2880). (The National Teaching & Learning Forum, Issue.
Sweller, J. (2011). Cognitive load theory. In Psychology of learning and motivation (Vol. 55, pp. 37-76). Elsevier.
Sweller, J. (2016a). Cognitive load theory, evolutionary educational psychology, and instructional design. In D. C. Geary & D. B. Berch (Eds.), Evolutionary Perspectives on Child Development and Education (pp. 291-306). Springer International Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-29986-0_12
Sweller, J. (2016b). Working memory, long-term memory, and instructional design. Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition, 5(4), 360-367. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jarmac.2015.12.002
Sweller, J. (2018). Measuring cognitive load. Perspectives on medical education, 7(1), 1-2. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40037-017-0395-4
Sweller, J. (2020). Cognitive load theory and educational technology. Educational Technology Research and Development, 68(1), 1-16. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11423-019-09701-3
Sweller, J. (2021). Why Inquiry-based Approaches Harm Students’ Learning. The Centre For Independent Studies. https://www.cis.org.au/publications/analysis-papers/why-inquiry-based-approaches-harm-students-learning/
Sweller, J., & Cooper, G. A. (1985). The use of worked examples as a substitute for problem solving in learning algebra. Cognition and instruction, 2(1), 59-89.
Sweller, J., van Merriënboer, J. J. G., & Paas, F. (2019). Cognitive architecture and instructional design: 20 years later. Educational Psychology Review, 31(2), 261-292. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10648-019-09465-5
Taylor, K., & Rohrer, D. (2010). The effects of interleaved practice. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 24(6), 837-848.
Thalmann, M., Souza, A. S., & Oberauer, K. (2019). How does chunking help working memory? J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn, 45(1), 37-55. https://doi.org/10.1037/xlm0000578
Tricot, A., & Sweller, J. (2014). Domain-specific knowledge and why teaching generic skills does not work. Educational Psychology Review, 26(2), 265-283.
van Gog, T., Hoogerheide, V., & van Harsel, M. (2020). The role of mental effort in fostering self-regulated learning with problem-solving tasks. Educational Psychology Review, 32(4), 1055-1072. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10648-020-09544-y
Vangsness, L., & Young, M. E. (2021). More isn’t always better: when metacognitive prompts are misleading. Metacognition and Learning, 16(1), 135-156. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11409-020-09241-9
VanLehn, K. (1996). Cognitive skill acquisition. Annual review of psychology, 47(1), 513-539.
Weinstein, C. (2007). Model of strategic learning. Clearwater, FL: HandH Publishing.
Weinstein, C. E., Palmer, D., & Schulte, A. C. (1987). Learning and study strategies inventory (LASSI). Clearwater, FL: H & H Publishing.
Weinstein, C. E., Palmer, D. R., & Acee, T. W. (2016). LASSI 3rd edition learning and study strategies inventory. In: Clearwater, FL: H & H Publishing.
Wissman, K. T., Rawson, K. A., & Pyc, M. A. (2012). How and when do students use flashcards? Memory, 20(6), 568-579.
Wittrock, M. C. (1989). Generative Processes of Comprehension. Educational Psychologist, 24(4), 345-376. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15326985ep2404_2
Wittrock, M. C. (2010). Learning as a Generative Process. Educational Psychologist, 45(1), 40-45. https://doi.org/10.1080/00461520903433554
Yang, C., Sun, B., Potts, R., Yu, R., Luo, L., & Shanks, D. (2020). Do working memory capacity and test anxiety modulate the beneficial effects of testing on new learning? Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 26. https://doi.org/10.1037/xap0000278
Yang, H. H., Shi, Y., Yang, H., & Pu, Q. (2020). The Impacts of Digital Note-Taking on Classroom Instruction: A Literature Review (978-981-33-4594-2). L.-K. Lee, L. H. U, F. L. Wang, S. K. S. Cheung, O. Au, & K. C. Li.
Youssef-Shalala, A., Ayres, P., Schubert, C., & Sweller, J. (2014). Using a general problem-solving strategy to promote transfer. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 20(3), 215.
Zaidi, N. L. B., Grob, K. L., Monrad, S. M., Kurtz, J. B., Tai, A., Ahmed, A. Z., Gruppen, L. D., & Santen, S. A. (2018). Pushing critical thinking skills with multiple-choice questions: does bloom’s taxonomy work? Academic Medicine, 93(6). https://journals.lww.com/academicmedicine/Fulltext/2018/06000/Pushing_Critical_Thinking_Skills_With.28.aspx
Zoller, U. (2016). From algorithmic science teaching to “know” to research-based transformative inter-transdisciplinary learning to “think”: Problem solving in the STES/STEM and sustainability contexts. In N. Papadouris, A. Hadjigeorgiou, & C. P. Constantinou (Eds.), Insights from research in science teaching and learning: Selected papers from the ESERA 2013 conference (pp. 153-168). Springer International Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-20074-3_11
Zulkiply, N., & Burt, J. S. (2013). The exemplar interleaving effect in inductive learning: Moderation by the difficulty of category discriminations. Memory & cognition, 41(1), 16-27.
For a more in-depth overview of the iCanStudy learning system and its theoretical basis, please refer to our Report on Learning below.
About the report:
This report outlines the basic principles we have found pertinent to practical learning skills development and how the iCanStudy program is designed around each consideration. It is also a reference document for those wishing to learn broadly about some trending topics within the learning science domain.
Updated: August 2022
Cite this report as: Sung, J (2022). Report on Learning: A Practical and Learner-Centric Perspective. iCanStudy